International Copyright Protection

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Copyright Intellectual Property can be protected at National and International. Copyright has international protection such as Berne convention, universal copyright convention, WIPO copyright Treaty, Rome convention, Brussels convention etc.

The International union for the protection of literary and artistic works was established in 1886 in Berne, Switzerland. It is popularly known as Berne Convention. It entered into force on 5th December, 1887 and it has been revised for five times. It is administered by world intellectual property organization (WIPO). The Berne convention has 38 articles and special provisions for the developing countries. The convention has established a minimum of protection of life plus 50 years or an alternative of fifty years from publication of anonymous work and pseudonymous work. India is a member of the Berne convention.

One of the International copyright protections is Universal Copyright Convention (UCC). The universal copyright convention was signed and entered into force on September 6, 1952. It was revised on 1971 at Paris. The protection given is for published as well as unpublished works. The member countries must grant a minimum copyright term of 25 years from publication, or life of the author plus 25 years. The foreign authors of other member countries must be granted exclusively rights for at least seven years.

The next International Copyright protection for the performers, producers of phonogram and broadcasting organizations is Rome convention. The Rome convention was completed on October 26, 1961 and entered into force on may 18, 1964 basically intend to protect the neighboring rights. Phonogram is a sound recording. The rights in respect of phonograms and performances and broadcasting are called neighboring rights.

The benefits of this convention are performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasters. The protection is granted for twenty years term will vary according to the nature of work. The eligibility to participate in this convention is that a state must be a member of either of the Berne convention or the universal copyright convention.

Another International Copyright protection is WIPO copyright Treaty. It was adopted by the diplomatic conference at Geneva on December 20, 1996 and entered into force on January 1, 1996. This convention is for the protection of rights of performers and produces of phonograms. The term of protection is fifty years.

Some treaties convention gives protection for the unauthorized duplication. On October 29, 1971, the convention for the producers of phonograms against unauthorized duplication of their phonograms is signed at Geneva. The main purpose of this Geneva Convention is to fight against the practice of piracy by third parties.

The convention relating to the distribution of programme- carrying signals transmitted by satellite and audio- visual works is Brussels convention signed on may 21 1974. The main purpose is to battle the misappropriation of satellite signals on an international level. The treaty on international registration of audio-visual works Geneva signed on April 20, 1989 at Geneva. It deals with the registration of audio- visual works at the international level.

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How International Audio Conferencing Works

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Audio conferencing enables individuals from different locations to connect and speak with each other using the services of a secure telephone line. The process allows people who otherwise may not be able to physically meet each other to communicate and have meetings. This is a preferred mode of communication as it is more economical for businesses than to have their personnel travel across cities or countries to attend meetings. International voice conferencing allows people in different countries to communicate with each other at a pre-determined date and time.

This is more commonly known as teleconferencing or voice conferencing, any number of people can be connected at the same time. This form of communication is widely in use in commerce, education and business. It also saves time as traveling from one country to another can take time, and delays can always make such trips much longer. Traveling also causes disruption at work as the time it takes for an employee to travel means time away from the office.

An international audio con-call differs from an ordinary phone call in the sense that there are more than two people who make up a voice con-call. Callers are connected to what is known as a conference bridge which is a server that makes it possible for many people to communicate with one another.

There are different types of international voice conferencing services available today. The first type is the “dial in” which is simply dialing a number that has been pre-designated and given to all the participants of the conference to call. It is normally accompanied with a code or passkey that needs to be entered via a touch tone phone.

The second type is called the “reservation-less call” which is most commonly used for businesses that choose to allow participants in Canada and/or in the US to connect toll-free into the con-call. If the participant is outside the local dialing calling area, there is no long distance cost incurred as these are charges to the host of the con-call. This type of call also utilizes a passkey or pass-code.

The third type of voice conference call is “operator assisted.” Operator assisted con-calls uses services offered by a conference call company which normally includes the bringing of participants to the call (operator dial out), call moderator and live call monitoring, roll call, faxing or emailing of any documents to all the participants, services like translation, and many more services.

Such voice con-calls allow businesses to communicate with people in different locations or countries without incurring traveling, hotel costs, per dime costs, and any travel delays that can arise.

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Agricultural Biotechnology International Conference Kicks Off in Australia

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A major international conference on agricultural biotechnology starts in Melbourne, Australia, today (August 6, 2006).The Agricultural Biotech International Conference (ABIC) brings together representatives of biotech companies, agricultural researchers and policy makers from across the world.

The theme of this conference is Unlocking the Potential of Agricultural Biotechnology. Some of the topics to be discussed include:

* Importance of biotechnology in meeting global food requirements.

* Application of agricultural biotechnology in biomedicine.

* Commercialization of innovative biotechnology.

* Practical applications of genomics to cereal crops.

* Using biotechnology to protect and enhance food supply.

* Biotechnology in developing countries.

Unlocking the potential of agricultural biotechnology is an issue that has been with us since the commercialization of the first genetically modified crop a decade ago. Developed countries, notably the U.S. and Canada, appreciate that agricultural biotechnology has been a prime mover of their economies. They have massively invested in it, effectively eclipsing the so-called conventional agriculture. The gains have been innumerable.

Farmers in these countries have almost doubled their income from cultivating genetically modified crops, that are usually high yielding and pest resistant.

In developing countries, the picture is different. Agricultural biotechnology remains a contested issue. Many developing countries would not embrace because of their distrust for the developed countries. Others have been fed with lies that agricultural biotechnology, and in particular Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), pose danger to the environment and the health of consumers.

Positive attributes of agricultural biotechnology must be played out at the Melbourne meeting for all to listen.

It’s encouraging that delegates from developing countries such as Prof. Jennifer Thomson (South Africa), Dr. Jagadish Mittur (India), and Dr. Rangsun Parnpai (Thailand) are attending this conference. They have a chance to learn firsthand how agricultural biotechnology has revolutionized the economies of such countries as the U.S., Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. These delegates must explore how their countries can similarly benefit from agricultural biotechnology.

Since this is a gathering of experts in agricultural biotechnology, it’s expected that there will a productive debate on the potential of agricultural biotechnology. Delegates should conduct their deliberations with developing countries in mind. It’s here where agricultural biotechnology is in dire need.

Developing countries delegates are encouraged to view this conference as a window of opportunity to learn from as many experts as possible on the potential of agricultural biotechnology.

Once the curtains of this conference fall, delegates from developing countries must ensure that they share the lessons learnt with policy makers, scientists and farmers in their respective countries.

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International Conferencing for Your Business Brilliance

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With fast paced globalization, world economy has witnessed a drastic change and now the companies have decided to head on foreign investments to maintain pace with the changing market scenario. Companies are keen to set up offices across the world. The reason for establishing offices abroad is to keep a strong footing in international arena. So, in order sustain close contacts and co-ordination with the regional branches of the corporate houses, international conferencing has become really indispensable. Besides, such conferencing solution has proved to be an essential means of connecting multiple parties straight to people in various locations round the globe.

Frankly speaking, gone are the days when business personnel and representatives were required to throng to foreign countries to meet and invite new business collaborates, suppliers, channel partners, retailers and other dealers. With international conferencing becoming the most sought after tool these days nothing seems impossible. One can just make good use of internet or telephone to connect with the stakeholders and communicate with them in real-time. So it is not only convenient but also reduces the conference calling expenses, curtailing the traveling time and costs each time.

Big business houses and organizations, seeking for the most cost-effective means to manage their conferencing arrangements can look for call service providers which offer effective services at reasonable costs. The service providers come up with wide range of web interacting solutions that let the users work in virtual setting which is pretty supportive to collaboration. The basic requirement for such type of virtual meeting is computer or laptop well accompanied by fast net connection and a conferencing application. The conferencing service doesn’t demand any software installation by participants or moderators. What’s more is that the user-friendly application is well accessible from all the web browsers devoid of any plug-ins. Simply put, they are fully safe, as the service operator encrypts the solutions as per maximum security protocol.

There are plenty of providers dealing with international conference call service who are into offering global conferencing service to company. The providers present applications which are installed with multiple advanced features. The users get the choice of transferring the applications, documents and files without any heck followed by sharing the whole desktop with participants present on the other side. The webcasting service lets the participants to record the meeting for further reference. Apart from these, the effective features include drag and drop, white boarding which are included into the transmission software to guarantee right brainstorming and transmission at real time amongst participants who are located at distant places. Companies as well as individuals can choose such features as per their needs and requirements while gaining international conferencing solutions from reliable service providers.

To conclude, this can be said that with operator backed conference call, you get the liberty to simplify the whole conference process and facilitate your meeting in a more effective and formal manner. Well, regardless of your business size, be it big or small, you can make good use of this superb international conferencing and make the communication easy like never before.

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Global International Conference Calls

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So you are looking for the best international conference call solutions to easily host global conference calls for your business or individual use. So which solutions are the easiest and most affordable?

As a part of most businesses, international conference calls are necessary sometimes. Since people attending the call may be connecting from any part of the world, using a reliable and quality solution is the key to a successful conference call.

When looking for a great conference hosting service, there are two important factors to consider: reliability and saving money.

You certainly want your calls to have a great quality. The voice must be clear and fast, with no major delay. Considering the fact that it is an international conference call and because of the long distance, the call quality plays a big part.

Another factor is choosing an affordable, low cost solution. After all, why spend too much money on a conference service while you can save money and use a more affordable one with equal or even more features?

Some companies offer you toll free numbers to make your conference calls free for people from US and Canada. You will also receive a separate number to give to your international customers or business partners to use to connect to the call easily.

When you do a simple search online, you will be amazed to see how many different companies are offering conference hosting services for global use.

Each of them come with certain benefits, quality, and price. You can compare carefully your choices to choose the best solution for you.

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